Saluting our Freedom Fighters on India’s Independence Day
There have been several great souls in the Syrian Christian Community who rose to partake in the freedom struggle for India’s Independence. As India enters the 75th year of Independence, Nalloor Library would like our readers to remember a few freedom fighters who represented the Syrian Christian community and share their stories in their Sunday Schools and meetings across the world. This list is no means a complete list and only four have been chosen as representatives. We salute each and every freedom fighter across this great nation who participated in the freedom struggle and those who gave their lives for India’s freedom. Jai Hind!
Shri Thevarthundiyil Titus also known as ‘Titusji’ – Dandi March
The historic Dandi Salt march by Mahatma Gandhi in 1930 triggered the wider Civil Disobedience Movement leading to India’s freedom from the British. Among the marchers that would change India’s destiny was just one Christian and a Mar Thomite, Shri Thevarthundiyil Titus also known as ‘Titusji’. A devout Gandhian – he was known by the name Titus in his earlier days. “Titusji” was the name given to him by Mahatma Gandhi as a token of love and honour.
Read more: Remembering the Mahatma of the Mar Thoma Church (Freedom Fighter) Rare Photos and Video
Mr. O. C. Chacko of the Indian National Army (INA)
Mr. O. C. Chacko was part of the Indian National Army (INA) of Subash Chandhra Bose and member of the Kuriannoor Mar Thoma Church, Pathanamthitta, Kerala. We post a link to a write up that was published on his 100th (centenary) birth anniversary.
Read More at: 100th Birth Anniversary of a Marthomite Freedom Fighter – Mr. O. C. Chacko
Rev. C.V.George B.A., B.L
General Secretary of the Mar Thoma Sunday School Samajam. He was the only Mar Thoma Priest who is recognized and awarded as a freedom fighter by the Government. Before his ordination, he was in jail for almost a year for his participation in the Freedom movement of India.
Read more at: Pages from History: Birth of Freedom Fighter (Advocate) Rev. C.V.George B.A., B.L
George Joseph, a barrister, fiery nationalist, avant-garde journalist, pioneer trade unionist, and ardent champion of important public causes, has etched an indelible place in the history of India’s war for Independence. He hailed from Kerala and was not just a pioneer in several fields, he was also a staunch supporter of Annie Besant’s Home Rule movement and Gandhiji’s Non-Cooperation movement during India’s freedom struggle.
He was born in Chenganoor (Kerala) in 1887, which at that time was part of the Travancore Kingdom. He completed his Law at the University of Edinburgh and it was during his stay in London that he became acquainted with notable freedom fighters like Madam Cama, S K Verma, S R Rana, and Veer Savarkar. He returned to India after finishing his education and though he established his legal practice initially in Chennai, he eventually shifted it to Madurai. George Joseph went on to become a famous criminal lawyer in Madurai. From the time he started practising there, he championed the cause of Madurai’s tribes, such as the Piramalai Kallars and Maravars. In 1920, following the Perungamanallur firing (also referred to as the Jallianwalla Bagh of the South), the British implemented the Criminal Tribes Act, labelling these groups as criminals. He vehemently opposed the Act by voicing his opinions in newspapers and he also represented these communities in court proceedings. The residents of these settlements gave him the name ‘Rosapoo Durai’ (a Rose amongst Leaders), as a symbol of their gratitude. ~indianculture.gov.in
Remembering Ms. Bagshaw – Hoskote, an example of Christian spirit and service
Pages from History: – Beginning of Hoskote Mission in 1947 and A Big Salute to Ms. Bagshaw.
The first missionaries (The founders – Rev. A.C.Zachariah and family and Mr. M.T.Joseph and family) of the present Hoskote Misson Medical Centre reached Hoskote on 27 June 1947. The Cubbon Park Prayer fellowship of the Bangalore Mar Thoma Paresh provided them the necessary help. The missionaries were whole heartedly welcomed by the Brethren Mission Church which had an orphanage “House of Praise “ in Hoskote town. The head of the Orphanage, Miss. Bagshaw and her staff in true Christian spirit accommodated the new mission workers with them in the House of Praise for about six months till they found their own rented houses in the town.
The early years of Ashram living was really tough. There was no regular income but survival was the main concern, to convert the hard ground to grow crops, it took, years of toil, sweat and hard work. The only answer was hard physical labour to make their living. Both families joined hand in hand, they were of one heart and mind, they felt that what they owned was not their own; they shared everything they had.
The first kind offer from the local community was to fetch drinking water from the Panchayat President’s residence. (Shri. Chenna byre Gowder). Thanks to this friendly family in God’s providence for their kindness.
The second offer was to buy the 9 acres of land for the Christa Sakshya Sangha work. Thus the land, where the present Headquarters of the Mission is situated, was bought in 1951-52 for a price less than Rs. 5000.
In the year 1953 Alexander Mar Theophilus Thirumeni (later the Head of the Mar Thoma Church – Rt. Rev. Alexander Mar Thoma Metropolitan) collected the funds for the construction of two mission quarters, a chapel building and a camp shed The two families shifted their residences from rented houses in the town to their own houses in the Mission Compound.
Hoskote Mission History – Abraham and Sara
Pages from History:
First Fruits of the Hoskote Mission – Abraham and Sara
Even though the missionaries earned the love and respect of many people in the town and surrounding villages through their life and testimony, people were very hesitant to join the new faith. The first one who joined the fellowship of the Church through baptism was a young man from Hoskote who received the Christian name Mathai. Narasimha and his wife, Rethnamma, were residents of the Gonakhanahally village. Rethnamma came into contact with the ladies’ team at Jedigenahally and became a Christian and accepted the Christian name Saramma. Later Narasimha was also baptized and received the name Abraham. Both of them were active members of the mission. Their tombs in Ghonakhanahlly village stand as a witness to their faith,
Parish History: Kuriannoor Mar Thoma Church
THE MAR THOMA CHURCH, KURIANNOOR
A BRIEF HISTORY
Old undated photo of the old Kuriannoor Mar Thoma Church and the present church building. (Images from Nalloor Library Archives)
St. Thomas, the Apostle of Jesus Christ, came to India in A.D.52 and established 7 churches in the Malabar Coast of Kerala, in South India. Niranam St. Mary’s Church was one among them. Believers in and around Niranam, Changanassery, Edathua, Chambakulam, Chengannur, Maramon, Kalloopara, Chennithala, Paliyekkara and Puthiyakavu used to worship in that Church. Members of the Niranam Parish, who were staying in Maramon area, found it extremely difficult to attend church services in Niranam regularly. In those days, country boats (Kettuvallams) were the only mode of transportation (there were no road transport facilities). This led the believers in the Maramon area to establish the Maramon Church on 28 August A.D.1440. Our forefathers worshiped in the Maramon Church until a Mar Thoma Church in Kuriannoor was established in 1879.
The year 1837 bore witness to a spiritual reformation in the Mar Thoma Church, mainly under the leadership of Palakkunnathu Abraham Malpan Achen (1796-1845). The reforms included translation of liturgy into Malayalam, emphasis on the study of the Holy Bible, family worship, and evangelization of the Gospel. Abolition of prayers for the dead and some unscriptural practices, such as statues, invocation of saints and some unhealthy veneration of sacraments were banned.
As there were no proper roads, the journey from Kuriannoor to Maramon was difficult and tedious, especially for funerals during the monsoon season. The Neelethu Pallikkoodam, a shed on bamboo poles, thatched with coconut leaves that was being used as a prayer hall cum school, was altered as the Mar Thoma Church, Kuriannoor in the year 1879 by Thomas Mar Athanasius Metropolitan (1837-1893 The Mar Thoma XIV). Rahoor Scariah Kathanar was the first Vicar of the Kuriannoor Church. Two of the Mar Thoma Metropolitans, viz. Titus I Mar Thoma (Dethose Kathanar (1843-1909) and Titus II Mar Thoma (P.J. Dethose Kathanar (1866-1944) were vicars of our parish when they were achens. Due to an increase in the membership/population, St. Thomas Mar Thoma Church was formed in 1897 and Salem Mar Thoma Church in 1902.
Rev. M.C. George, (1874-1923) Maliyekkal was the first full time priest for Kuriannoor from 1903 as former vicars were in charge of Maramon Church as well. The English School, Kuriannoor was started in 1921 thanks to the leadership of Rev. M.C. George. Rev. T.M. Mathai (1883-1970) Punnathundiyil was our vicar from 1924. During the reign of Titus II Mar Thoma, a beautiful church building was constructed under the leadership of Vicars Rev. K.I. Varkey (1877-1948), Kizhakkethalakkal, Edathua, Rev. K.M. Mathai (1899-1959), Kuttamathayyethu, Puthenkavu, and Rev. Abraham Mathew (1902-1960), Elamittethu, Moovattupuzha Valakom. Our forefathers spent about eight years and a sum of Rs. 3150/- to complete their ardent desire of a place of worship. It was dedicated on 12th April 1940.
All the three Mar Thoma Churches in Kuriannoor were under the Vicarship of a single Achen till 1963. Rev. M. V. Abraham, Ashtamudy was the first Vicar who was solely in-charge of our parish. He managed to purchase 28 cents of land for a parsonage for Rs. 7500/-. Our first parsonage was completed in 1969 under the leadership of Rev. C. M. Thomas (1907-2001), Cherukara, Ayroor and Rev. K. A. Joshua, Mallassery.
The Centenary of the Church was celebrated during the year 1979 under the leadership of Rev. P. M. Samuel, Nelladu. Twenty cents of land adjacent to the church compound was purchased in December 1977, and the Centenary Hall was built there, which was consecrated on 6th May 1979.
Construction of the present, spacious and beautiful church building, with a parish hall underneath, was commenced during the year 2001, the plan of which was approved during the tenure of Rev. James M. Koshy Veeramala as Vicar. Rev. Achenkunju Mathew, and Rev. M.V. George (1952-2012) subsequent Vicars of the parish, worked tirelessly to complete the Church building, which was consecrated on 3rd September 2005 by His Grace Most Rev. Dr. Philipose Mar Chrysostom Metropolitan in the presence of Dr. Joseph Mar Irenaeus Suffragan Metropolitan.
Rev. M. V. George laid down the idea for the present parsonage in the year 2008, which was completed during the tenure of Rev. M. Mathew as Vicar. The new parsonage was consecrated by His Grace Most Rev. Dr. Joseph Mar Thoma Metropolitan on 23rd March 2010.
Rev. M.C. George (1874-1923), Maliyekkal, Rev. T.M. Mathai (1883-1970), Punnathundiyil, Rev. C.M. Thomas (1893-1956), Kochuparampil, and Rev. C.M. Abraham (1923-2008), Cheriyavadakkedathu, who were strong pillars of the Mar Thoma Church in the past belonged to our parish. Ambattu Varkey Upadeshi, Poozhikkalayil Ipe Mathen (1796-1890) Poozhikkalayil Thomma Upadeshi (1830-1912), Cherukattu Geevarghese Upadeshi, Thanathodathil Mathen Upadeshi, Kolabhagathu Geevarghese Ashan (1855-1938), Eruthikkal E.V. Philip Sar, Nalloor Joseph Sar (1910-1992) etc. were strong lay leaders of our parish in the past.
“But blessed is the one who trusts in the Lord, whose confidence is in him.
They will be like a tree planted by the water that sends out its roots by the stream.
It does not fear when heat comes; its leaves are always green.
It has no worries in a year of drought and never fails to bear fruit.”
~ Jeremiah 17:7-8 | NIV
Padma Shri awarded to Dr. Sosamma Iype (renowned scientist and conservationist)
On the eve of the 73rd Republic Day on 25th January 2022, the Government of India announced the recipients of the prestigious Padma Awards. Among the notable names was Dr. Sosamma Iype (renowned scientist & conservationist) who was awarded with the Padma Shri for her work in saving the rare breed of Vechur Cow. She is a member of Thrissur Ebenezer Mar Thoma Church and hails from Niranam.
Nalloor Library congratulates Dr. Sosamma Iype on being conferred this national honour.
Dr Sosamma Iype, 82, who is known as “Vechur’s Amma”, saved the rare breed of Vechur Cow from the brink of extinction and put up tremendous efforts to increase its population. A retired Veterinary Professor and researcher at the Mannuthy Veterinary College in Thrissur, she set up Vechur Conservation Trust to look after the unique cattle breed of Kerala. Now, there are 5,000 to 6,000 Vechur cattle in Kerala.
Sosamma, who took PhD from the National Dairy Research Institute, was the head of the Department of Genetics and Animal Breeding. Her story of how she overcame the opposition to the popularisation of breeding of Vechur cattle appeared in “Njayarazhcha” on its January 16th edition. Sosamma hails from Niranam in Kuttanad. She resides in Mannuthy. Late Abraham Varkey was her husband.~ www.onmanorama.com
Dr. Soamma Iype initiated the process of rehabilitation and conservation of the nearly extinct Vechur cow in 1988, along with other indigenous breeds of Kerala, such as Kasargod and Cheruvally cattle and Attappady goats.
Read more articles:
Vechurpasu Punarjanmam (Conservation Biology) by Sosamma Iype | വെച്ചൂർപശു പുനർജന്മം
‘Rebirth of Vechur Cows’. In the book, Dr. Sosamma Iype shares her 30 years of experience in conserving Kerala’s indigenous cattle breed Vechur cows and the hurdles she faced in her journey.
Sculptor P. E. Thomas – a life of dedication and art!
Read the amazing story about sculptor P. E. Thomas (1934-2017), the first student from Kerala at Visva-Bharati University founded by Rabindranath Tagore. Thomas was born in Mallappally, a town in south Kerala, to Poykamannil P M Eppan and Annamma. He completed his basic education at Kottayam CMS School and College. His art work adorn many notable places.
One of them being”Nalla Idayan,” a concrete structure weighing two tonnes erected at the Marthoma House in Kozhikode, was completed by Thomas at the behest of Theodosius Marthoma Metropolitan, who was the then Kozhikode Bishop and alumni of Visva-Bharati University.
“Rhythm” and “Dance of Death”, fashioned out of plaster of Paris in 1966, were kept on (the Lawrence School, Lovedale), Ooty school premises; “The “Family” (1975) told the story of a bold family head who told his family members to emancipate themselves. The statue of Christ at Gethsemane at Kandal Cross Shrine, Ootty, the “Elephant” designed for the Postal Department at Thaipakkad tourist centre, the statues of ‘sage Patanjali and the Snake’ in front of the Madras Regiment Hospital at Wellington and the Little Horse at the needle factory at Ketti in Tamil Nadu are some of his major works.
Click to read more at OnManorama.com – https://www.onmanorama.com/entertainment/art-and-culture/2021/12/20/p-e-thomas-master-malayali-sculptor-visva-bharati-santiniketan.html
100th Birth Anniversary of a Marthomite Freedom Fighter – Mr. O. C. Chacko
On 1st September 2020 – we remember Indian freedom fighter Mr. O. C. Chacko on his 100th (centenary) birth anniversary. Mr. O. C. Chacko was part of the Indian National Army (INA) of Subash Chandhra Bose and member of the Kuriannoor Mar Thoma Church, Pathanamthitta, Kerala. He was born on 1st September 1920 and passed away on 14th April 2014. He is buried at Neelethu Mar Thoma Church, Kuriannoor.
He was 95 years old and resided at Odikandathil-Vadakkemannil, Kuriannoor.
“The legacy of heroes is the memory of a great name and the inheritance of a great example.”
We carry below an English translation of an article Published in Malayala Manorama newspaper on
14th August 2013, a day before Independence Day.
Even after half a century of independence, Mr. O.C. Chacko observes, it has not lost its sheen. Before the day when the tricolor of India rose up bringing down the British flag on August 15, 1947, the eyes that dreamt such a morning still sparkle. The ears that heard the trumpet call of freedom fighters and their war cry are still kept open to hear it again. Only that the feet that had walked in steady gait braving the enslaving British yoke have become slightly unsteady. But he still jumps up from his wheel chair with the same enthusiasm on hearing the names of Netaji and INA – that is O.C.Chacko of Odikandathil Vadakkemannil, Kuriannoor.
He is one of the few surviving soldiers of INA. Every Independence Day is the birth of a new era for Mr. O.C. Chacko. Coincidentally, his birthday falls on a day following the Independence Day. He enters his 94th birthday on 1st September, 2013. In the ecstasy of witnessing one more Independence Day for Mr. Chacko, even in this freedom celebrations the young generation is eagerly awaiting to hear and record his memories. Son of Mr. Chacko of Odikandathil Vadakkemannil, born in September 1920, Mr. Chacko boarded a ship to Singapore in 1941 in search of a job. After a few years he became a soldier of the Indian National Army organized by Netaji Subhash Chandra Bose. He continued to serve as a soldier in the INA till 1945.
He had his first job in Singapore in the war department of the British Government. Thereafter he worked in several organizations in various capacities. Even then, an independent India was his dream. Later, he recorded all the important events in his life. There in his records is the history of organizing the Indian Independence League under the auspices of civilian leaders and Military captain Mohan Singh soon after the surrender of the British Army in Singapore.
Coming from Germany in 1943 in a submarine, Netaji took charge of the independence struggle in Singapore. Soon after, he constituted Azad Hind Government there. He opened camps for training people to be sent to the Burmese war front. He sent a few volunteers including the local people to the Burma border. It was at this time Mr. O.C. Chacko was recruited to the INA. He cherishes the memory of the occasion when he met Netaji and spoke to him. Out of the 60,000 Indians there, majority had joined the INA. Mr. Chacko remembers about Netaji’s presence in Singapore when Britain surrendered to Japan on August 15, 1945. Chacko believes that he (Netaji) was killed in a plane crash on his way to Japan via Taiwan.
His fighting days were much before his marriage when he was a bachelor. After marriage, he led a peaceful life in SIngapore with his wife and children. Retiring from his job in 1970 he came back to settle down in Kerala. He is still keeps as treasures the INA uniforms and the badges bearing Netaji’s picture and other symbols. He had other connections related to the INA as well. In Kozhencherry and Thottapuzhassery there were a few retired INA soldiers. All of them except Mr. Chacko are no more.
Mr. Chacko is a hero to the new generation of the locality as an enthusiastic old veteran who had participated and witnessed the freedom struggle. He is a regular invitee to the independence Day/Republic Day celebrations held by schools and local organizations. He participates in such functions wholeheartedly and shares the memories of old times. ‘Even when I decline such invitations’, he says, ‘the youngsters would not let go’. They want to hear the history of the struggle. Behind the gentle demeanour, the man of 94 still exudes an aura of heroism.
Unknown Facts of the Maramon Convention from the State Archives of Kerala
This historical article (free pdf) written in Malayalam gives hitherto unknown facts about the Maramon Convention held on the banks of the River Pamba organized by the Mar Thoma Syrian Church.
It is the result of more than 10 years of research done by Mr. Sreerenganathan K.P. of Aranmula from sources in the State Archives of Kerala (Archives of the Kingdom of Travancore) in Thiruvananthapuram (Trivandrum).
The article gives clear details of hitherto unknown facts about the Maramon Convention plot in Maramon. It tries to answer questions such as:
- Who is the owner of the convention plot on the banks of the River Pamba?
- What is the right/authority of the Mar Thoma Evangelistic Association (MTEA) over the convention plot?
- Is the MTEA paying any tax or rent for this plot?
- What are the details of the petition dated 13 April 1914 filed by Most Reverend Titus Mar Thoma II against the paddy farmers of Edasserima, Kidagannoor, Poovathoor, Mallapuzhassery Nellikkal and Koipuram?
- What are the details of the first Land Survey done in Travancore in 1816?
…and many other interesting facts about the Maramon Convention. It also gives the details of social life in and around Aranmula and Maramon during the early years of the convention.
The author of the article is Sreerenganathan K. P. an activist, artist, photographer and a keen historian who has published a book in 2018 on the history of Aranmula titled – ‘Aranmula Ithithyavum Charithrasathyangalum’ ISBN: 9729323510942
The Nalloor Library sincerely thanks him for allowing us to publish this article on our website .
First Sunday of December – Bible Sunday
The First Sunday of December is observed as Bible Society Day. It was the British and Foreign Bible Society, established in London in 1804, that first made a concerted effort of translating, printing and publishing Bibles in different languages.
In India, it’s auxiliaries were formed in Calcutta (1811), Bombay (1812), Madras (1820) and in Kerala (1956). Other auxiliaries were formed later. Even before the formation of the auxiliaries in India, the work of translation of the Bible to Indian languages had been taken up by William Carey and his associates in Calcutta. In obedience to the commandment of the Lord “Go ye unto the uttermost corners of the earth and preach my gospel”, the Bible Society aims at making available, copies of the Bible, New Testaments and portions of the Bible to
1.To Every Person in his/her own language.
2.At a price within his/her reach
3.In a style which is easily understood
It is in pursuance of this objective that it brings out special editions for students,members of the armed forces, in Braille type for the blind, etc. The United Bible Society distributes an average of 32 million full Bibles each year. In addition to that, they distribute enough New Testaments and Scripture portions to potentially reach 5% of the world’s population each year. In 2012 they distributed over 405 million Scripture items.
In 2016, Bible Societies assisted in the completion of translations in 61 languages spoken by over 428 million people.
2016 was ‘a first’ for no fewer than 30 languages, spoken by over 95 million people. 17 communities now have their very first Bible, 6 have a New Testament and 7 communities have their first, or additional, portions of Scripture.
They also manage a growing social media ministry on Facebook and other social networks. The Digital Bible Facebook page reaches millions of young adults every year. 71% report it helps them apply the Bible’s teaching to their lives. https://www.facebook.com/UnitedBibleSocieties
29 July 1955: Daniel Case – St.Thomas Evangelical Church of India separates from the Mar Thoma Syrian Church (with Rare Photos)
29 July, 1955: Mr. Daniel files suit against the Mar Thoma Metropolitan. On 29 July 1955, Mr. Ninan Daniel, of Kurumthottikkal, Melukara Pathanamthitta District and three others filed a civil suit in the District Court of Kottayam against the then Metropolitan of the Mar Thoma Church Most Rev. Juhanon Mar Thoma and six others. Mr. K.N. Daniel, was a lay leaders in the Mar Thoma Church, an eminent liturgiologist, theologian, an author of many books, and a prominent lawyer.
According to Mr. Daniel, the Metropolitan favoured and accepted the faith of the Jacobite Church and as such he had no right to enter any of the Mar Thoma Churches and that he should not be allowed to continue as the Supreme Head of the Church. This case is known as the ‘Daniel Case’. This litigation lasted for almost 10 years and the final judgment from the Supreme Court of India came on 7 Jan 1965. In all the three courts (the District Court, Kerala High Court and the Supreme Court) verdicts were against Mr. Daniel.
This case was an unfortunate event in the history of the Mar Thoma Syrian Church and resulted in the formation of the St. Thomas Evangelical Church of India on 26 January 1961. Twenty priests who had been ordained in the Mar Thoma Church joined and pledged allegiance to the new Church.
- First defendant Most Rev. Juhanon Mar Thoma Metropolitan was examined through the judicial commission in the Mar Thoma Seminary in Kottayam. His examination took 35 hours over seven days.
Second defendant Rev. C.V.John was examined for 11 days continuously 6 hours each day. (Total 66 hours)
Adv. K.T.Thomas appeared before all the three courts for the Mar Thoma Syrian Church without taking any remuneration. Total cost of the case was Rs. 13;239/- (today it could be in crores).